Now that I have implemented Level of Detail texturing on the planetary bodies, I have sufficient ground resolution to render planetary satellites.
One challenge to overcome is the fact that satellites are so much smaller than planetary bodies, which has implications both for the near plane of the projection matrix and the resolution of the depth buffer. I opted for rendering satellites to a render target with a different projection matrix and overlaying the result. Figures 1-3 below show a low-poly, untextured model of the International Space Station (ISS)1, approximatly 100m in size and at an alitiude of 400km. In contrast, the Earth has a diameter of over 12,000km.
Another interesting challenge is the fact that satellites move very quickly with respect to a camera fixed in space. The International Space Station, for example, has an orbital speed of over 27,000km/h. While I can adjust the time control, slowing time by a factor of more than 1/1,000 exceeds the precision used by the GameTime timer, and results in orbital positions updating at a lower frequency than drawing.
The level of detail on the planet surface is currently shown to a maximum (0-based) level of 5. For a tiling system using an equirectangular projection and 256px-square tiles, this equates to a 16,384x8192px ("16k") image in 64x32=2048 tiles. Tiles which tesselate to this level can have a single vertex buffer with an index of type short (0-based L5=23082 vertices), which allows me to use the XNA Reach Profile. I could easily switch to the HiDef Profile, use an index of type int, and support higher levels of detail.
1 3D model of International Space Station provided by NASA